What is a buffer Solution?

A buffer solution is made up of a mixture of a weak acid and its conjugate base, or vice versa. It is an aqueous solution whose pH changes slightly when a small amount of strong base or acid is added to it.

Types Of Buffer Solutions

There are two types of buffer solutions viz acidic buffer and basic buffer.

  • Acidic Buffer

These buffer solutions are generally made from a weak acid and one of its salts which is usually a sodium salt. It has a pH value less than 7.

  • Basic Buffer

These buffer solution are generally made from a weak base and one of its salts. It has a pH value greater than 7.


Example of Buffer Solutions

Acidic Buffer Solution –

The best example would be considering a mixture of sodium ethanoate and ethanoic acid in solution. The pH of the solution would be equal to 4.76 if it contained the same molar concentrations of acid and base. The concentration would not matter if they are the same.

Basic Buffer Solution –

The best example would be considering a mixture of ammonium chloride solution and ammonia solution. The pH of the solution would be equal to 9.25 if the solutions would be mixed in equal molar proportions. same molar concentrations of acid and base. The concentration would not matter if they are the same.

Applications of Buffer Solutions

  • It is used in soaps to counteract the alkalinity.
  • Cleopatra used in cosmetics
  • Used to maintain the pH for enzymes in various organisms
  • It is present in blood plasma to maintain a pH value between 7.35 and 7.45
  • It is used in the fermentation process.
  • It is used in chemical analysis.
  • It is used in textile industries.
  • It is used to correct conditions for dyes.
  • It is used in laundry detergents to prevent breaking down of their natural ingredients.

Buffer capacity is defined as the property of buffer to resist alteration in its pH value. Buffer capacity is greatest when pH = pKa or pOH = pKb.

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For many students, learning how to read can be quite a challenge. Literacy rates vary dramatically throughout the world and even within the country itself. While some young readers are quick to pick up on the finer points of learning how to read, others tend to require a little extra assistance. After all, today’s world requires nothing but the highest level of reading programs to teach reading skills in order to succeed.

Depending upon where you live, it might be fairly difficult to find a reading program that will truly take your child’s learning abilities to the next level. Most major cities, for example, are home to a great deal of reading programs that often extend throughout the entirety of the year, while finding similar programs in small towns can be easier said than done. If you put in the right amount of time and research, however, chances are you’ll find a program that will be effective.

Consider an E-Reader 

The way technology is moving today, it’d be difficult to think of a better place to start when it comes to teaching students to read than with an e-reader. These devices are becoming less and less expensive as time goes by, and with the massive amount of reading material to choose from, you can create your very own learning program that can be customized to match your student’s current skill level. The addition of technology can also help to increase your student’s interest in learning, as the move from analog to digital is omnipresent in today’s society.

Contact Your Local Library

Once you have a list of goals in mind, the first place you should contact when looking for a reading program is your local library. Libraries will very often offer programs for children of all ages, and most of the time they’re either highly reasonable or completely free of charge. Many libraries also allow students to tailor the reading material to their liking, which can be very effective when it comes to getting picky students to read.

 The chances that you’ll be able to find a solid program at a local library will likely be higher if you live in an urban area, but this is not to say that smaller libraries don’t also have a lot to offer. Still, it’s best to look perhaps outside of your own town when trying to find the perfect reading program, especially if you live in a relatively rural area.

Look Into Universities

One of the most common misconceptions about universities is that the programs they offer are specifically for college-aged students. The fact is, many universities offer programs not only for adults, but for younger individuals as well. If you live near a college or university, it may be worth your while to contact them and inquire about whether or not they offer programs for younger students.

Typically, university programs are quite a bit more advanced and challenging than those which are offered at libraries and elsewhere in the community, so it’s important to keep your goals in mind before making any commitments to taking this route.

Perhaps the one downside of university programs for reading is that they tend to be far more expensive than community-offered programs. As a result, families who have to stick to a tight budget often find it difficult to take this route, and others are sometimes unsure as to whether or not it’s worth the extra money. After all, it’s not likely to be a wise decision to put a student who is only halfway interested in learning how to read better into a program that is excessively expensive.

Create Your Own Program

Sometimes it’s difficult to find a reading program offered locally, especially for those who can’t afford more expensive programs offered by universities. One of the best ways to save money but still help your student to achieve their reading goals is to create a program on your own. There’s plenty of material available for free on the Internet, some of which is most likely used in community programs.

When creating a reading program for your child, be sure to keep expectations at a fair level. There’s no benefit in pushing your student beyond what they can handle, which typically ends in nothing but discouragement. Allowing them to learn at their own pace will help you to create more tailored reading programs in the future.

Learning to read is essential, and the more you can do to push your student in the right direction, the better their chances of success will be later in life.

As the very famous saying goes by Elbert Hubbard, “Work to become, not to acquire.”, career entails what you have accomplished in your life, not how much you have stored in your bank. Yet, people these days have completely forgotten its actual meaning. Instead they take it as a means to create an uninterrupted stream of income. However, a career is much more than just having a job and it is much larger than reserving bundles of cash.

Career defines you as an individual; it signifies what were you then and where you stand now. It empowers you to contribute to your society than simply drawing paychecks. Being engaged in your career allows you to enjoy a great number of meaningful benefits you could ever think of. Not only that it provides you with an opportunity of growth and success, it also gives you a sense of self-respect and distinctiveness.

Though acquiring contentment in your career isn’t easy at all, you have to manage and plan your career according to your skills, knowledge and most important of all, passion. Following are 5 highly-valuable career building tips that’ll help you climb your career ladder with less hassle, i.e., with complete ease.

Career Building Tips

Career Building Tips

Identify Your Values

Understand your ethics or morals since it is the very first step of your career. Your ethics is the crucial factors – principles to be exact – that help you proceed towards a future you desire. Therefore, weigh your values with your career. If your ethics seems perfectly fitting with your career, you’ll be able to experience satisfaction in your work and as a result you’ll come to love what you do. Remember what Steve Job said, “the only way to do great work is to love what you do…” This is the only reason he was able to become a legend.

Take Your Work as Your Business

Yes, you heard it right! Though you are an employee in your company and you have to complete the assigned tasks, you should always approach your work as your own business. Take the assigned responsibilities seriously and find strategic ways to make contribution to your company. Remember that if you develop leader-like traits, you’ll be able to become a significant part in the growth of your company. Thus, when your company grows, ultimately you also grow.

Develop Personal Leadership Skills

Even if you are not a team leader of your department but a team member, you could always practice and demonstrate leadership. Remember that leadership isn’t affix to only job title, but it is what displayed by your personal traits, attitude and skills. Though acquiring these skills isn’t a walk in the park, you can attain these skills through utter dedication, trust, respect and personal ethics.

Grow Your Network

Extending you network simply means extending your professional relationships. It isn’t only your colleagues or your superiors you need to maintain your connections with. You also have to grow your connection with other people working in your niche. Engage in professional communities, groups and discussions to promote yourself and become prominent in your area.

Broaden Your Skills and Expertise

Though it is highly significant to have a complete expertise in your niche, but for the continuous growth of your career you shouldn’t limit your expertise but expand it by developing additional set of skills.

As a former musician who successfully transitioned into the business world and then became an entrepreneur, I had multiple friends forward me the link to this week’s New York Times article, “Is Music The Key To Success?”

My answer? Yes, for very specific reasons.

The article cites many famous leaders who took music lessons as children, and even more who, like me, pursued music professionally before transitioning into business. Alan Greenspan was a professional clarinetist, Condoleezza Rice a young concert pianist who played chamber music throughout her White House career. Many others, such as Steven Spielberg, studied music without pursuing it professionally. What did they learn that other people did not, and what does music have to teach you?

Music teaches discipline

The first and foremost benefit of music education is that it fosters discipline. To be successful as a musician, you must practice every day, and must learn very specific combinations of notes and rhythms. You must repeat complicated passages again and again until every facet is correct: your fingers are in the right place, you are inhaling and exhaling at the right time, you are controlling both your physical movements as well as the emotional sensitivity necessary to communicate the piece.

This type of discipline doesn’t begin when you are an adult. Even the earliest students, learning “Twinkle Twinkle Little Star” on violin, must accomplish all of these skills. This practice in discipline helps you focus on hard business-related tasks, such as creating a new product design or drafting a new annual budget.

Career Ladder

Music teaches production

Business leaders and employees both often suffer from “analysis paralysis,” a specific type of procrastination and anxiety that prevents them from completing tasks and projects on time.

Musicians have no such luxury. From the earliest lessons, the student learns that Recital Day is exactly one month away, and on that day you must be able to play “Twinkle Twinkle Little Star” in front of family and friends, whether or not it is perfect.

Musicians learn to avoid analysis paralysis because they are forced to produce, often at very short notice. As a former choral accompanist for a large church, I would have to learn and master a new piece by Bach, Brahms, or Britten every week. Sometimes, if the piece were exceptionally difficult, I would go through the score and strike out all the musical notes that I needed to skip, in order to play the remainder of them on time. That’s project management.

Music fosters healthy competition and team building

There’s always someone who gets the solo, and someone who doesn’t. If you want the solo, you have to not only prepare harder than the other person, you also have to be the type of person that conductors and musical directors want to work with.

Despite the stereotypical assumption that all musicians are divas, most musicians learn quickly that it’s much better to be a team player — and even though only one member of the orchestra earns the position of concertmaster, it’s much better when everyone plays together as a team.

It’s the same in business. If you want the promotion, you not only have to work hard but also have to be a good colleague. To truly be successful, you have to understand how to use your skills to lead a team.

Start taking lessons now

The good news is it’s still possible to reap the benefits of music education as an adult, even if you never took a single music lesson as a child. Choose an instrument you like and look for teachers in your area, such as violin teachers in Los Angeles. (If you do not know which instrument to pick, violin and guitar are good choices, and both offer opportunities for solo as well as group performance).

Then use the skills you learn in the practice room to move you up the career ladder.

You may have recently found out that you’ve been accepted on the MBA programme you applied for. Here’s some advice before you start on your exciting journey:

Make the most of your time studying atUniversity.

Adequate preparation for lectures and seminars, taking notes and participating in seminars, taking advantage of your lecturers’ access hours and conducting independent study are all great ways of exploring the topics of your MBA in more detail. You’ll gain an advanced understanding of all the topics you’re studying, as well as developing your own ideas.

Gain transferrable skills.

You’ll learn and develop many transferrable skills whilst studying for your MBA London.Organising and analysing data, developing numeracy skills, enhancing written communication of complex arguments and ideas, and developing independent learning are some of the skills you can learn through studying a MBA. Make use of your time studying to develop these skills so you can implement them in your future career.

Explore all of the knowledge on offer.

You will be exposed to vast amounts of knowledge and critical understanding in relation to business and management, so it’s important to take all that you learn on board whilst developing your own perspective and understanding. This can help you gain a better understanding of current developments in the business environment which can help you in your future career. Questioning and critiquing the ideas you learn on your course will also help you reach your own conclusions and develop the ability to solve complex business problems.

Be aware of the difference between undergraduate dissertations and those expected at Master’s level.

A Master’s dissertation requires a more critical and considered explanation of ideas and theories than undergraduate dissertations. A dissertation at this level also requires a broad review of relevant literature. An awareness of these differences will help you feel more prepared for your course and understand what is expected of you.

If you will be starting your MBA London soon or are looking to apply, these tips will help you get the most out of your time studying.

Getting an education and that to of higher level is the dream of most of the people around the world, for the sake of which they are even able to travel to distant places or go abroad for getting the kind of education they always wanted to have. They can get the Gatwick Parking and look out for the best schools and talk to the career counselors that can help you pick one place for yourself in order to get completely started.

You must know what kind of advantages the college or the university is giving to you and then make a decision.  The top reasons for traveling around get higher education include.

Higher Education

If you think that there are no proper options for studies in your own country you can travel to some other place to get your around and study the subjects that you want to. The teachers and the staff are very professionalan and they only evaluate you on the basis of how you are performing in your class and in your test so everyone’s individual assessment is done in this case.

When you are here you can get a Gatwick Valet Car Parking and keep your around assets along with other concerning stuff very much safe with you.  In such colleges and schools, teachers who want to reach to the higher levels have to prove it to the system that they proper options teach their subject above all so this way they put more effort towards the subject and the students and in the preparation of their classes and test as well.

Educational television is in fact the use of TV shows to help people learn. This learning method is also very popular in the distance education field. There are channels that have the purpose of showing only educative shows but also individual television programs that offer general information on a certain topic. Why is educational television so important? Find out some of the benefits of learning in front of the TV.


Imagine you get to study for your biology exam by just watching descriptive videos from the comfort of your sofa. This method helps students and people interested in overall knowledge to find and better memorize information regarding a certain subject. The dynamic process of learning with the help of television is better than just learning by reading something from a book because the viewer also gets to have and audible stimuli, thus, there are 2 channels through which the brain receives the information. Studies regarding interactive lessons have shown that students and scholars learn faster from watching a video of the lesson than just reading the information from a book. There are many TV channels that offer educational shows, Time Warner Cable Offers, for example, include a multitude of options to choose from.

Visual explanation

Visual explanation

Watching video examples ease the understanding of many complicated theories. The visual explanation aids the better understanding of the topic and helps the brain to make associative connections between the visual information that he receives and the already known facts.  Educational television can help children  memorize the letters of the alphabet and how to count and even learn a foreign language.

You get to choose

One of the other benefits of educational television is the fact that you can get to choose what to watch. Searching for documentaries and television shows that have an educational content on a certain desired topic can easily be done by anyone.

Children and Family Bonding

Probably the best part of educational shows on TV is that they manage to capture the attention very quickly, unlike books and other materials. Children sometimes prove to be very hard to convince when it comes doing their homework. They would rather watch TV instead. Teaching children about the importance of educational television and placing these kinds of television shows among their options leads to a better change for them to be more and more interested in the topic.

Another great thing is that parents can easily monitor their children knowledge about all kinds of topics and use the TV shows to start conversations about real life situations. Spending quality time with them as they watch and learn can become a win-win situation, both for the parents as well as for the children.

This is news from Denver city and county of the state Colorado (U.S.A) – twenty applicant students for the respected Daniels fund Scholarship received answer in positive on Monday this is very much pleasant for these students.

It is not first time that students achieve the scholarship the particular scholarship program often provide scholarships to students.

The particular quality of this program is that it is focuses the qualities of students. It is a four year scholarship program. Daniels scholarship Program considers the academic achievements and financial need of students to select for scholarship.

It is awarded to 250 students from Colorado these all students are brilliant in studies and demonstrate good character and promise to serve back the communities.

funding program

The applicant students undergo a difficult procedure of application interview and selection. After this process 250 gems are selected among thousands of applicants. Amount of scholarship aid is different for each student according to its need or can be changed yearly for the same student. This funding wants a fair reception of aid so that maximum students can fulfill their unmet needs.

This will provide a smooth continuity in their degree achieving program The best thing about this program is the renewal of scholarship every year so that students remain enthusiastic about study. If they don’t perform well in degree they have fair to be termination of scholarship. In the same way if they perform well will get more than last year. It remains the students working and more concentrate about their studies as it mainly based on academic career.

It is best for those students who dream of higher education after school but unable to afford that in any mean. This funding fulfills their needs so that continuity in their studies may occur.  As this scholarship purely based on academic career so students are proud to have this particular scholarship and work more hard to maintain the funding so that they can achieve their dream which may impossible without any scholarship.

It not only helps the student in getting education but also enhances their confidence level in themselves which boosts up a great individual among them.

This esteemed program has given more than $11 million to  3800 needy and brilliant students and still doing. It is like a fairy of Cinderella who help them when they don’t expect anything from anywhere.

The Daniels scholarship allows students to study in any nonprofit college or university in U.S to get their bachelor’s degree.

It covers all or a part of students’ need

Such as,

Books and provisions Tuition and dues

Room and sustenance

On Monday April 22, 2019 all semifinalists for this esteemed program were collected at Colorado House of representative to receive a speech from Representative Dominick Moreno (Commerce City)

At the end of the speech all the semifinalists were surprised by knowing that they all got scholarship. It was very pleasant moment for all those young and enthusiastic applicants. There was joy everywhere.

The applicants who were unable to attend the speech will receive letters soon to tell them whether they were awarded the scholarship

The cyber space is fast taking over the regular world. This could well mean the end of the age old university and college experience. The attractions for an online degree are many and are beginning to entice both the old and the young seekers of education. The rapid pace of changing technologies and the need for a constant upgrading of your knowledge base is making it mandatory for people to go for the online degree option.

Your typical college syllabus does not really get changed or remodeled at a pace that the online universities and educational institutes can. Fact is that the online degree option is increasingly becoming attractive and the traditional college experience is gradually losing out on its appeal to a large number of prospective students. There are various reasons for this shift:

Learn while you earn

It allows you to hold a regular job while you pursue an online degree. You can join an industry as an intern, fresher or apprentice and learn the ropes of the trade, while you carry on with your education related goals. It teaches you to plan your time well; which is essential to your success in any line of profession. It brings that much needed discipline to your overall life and preps you for the coming challenges of your professional life.

Cuts through distance

An online degree does not require you to travel to a destination or college each day. It saves you time and energy. The home learning saves you those precious bucks that you would spend commuting to and from your college. It is not just a matter of money the online education opens up a whole new world of opportunities for you.

You can opt for a university anywhere in the world or from a different state within your own country. Your dreams of getting certified or graduating from a prestigious or a university far away from your current location does not have to remain a dream. It is very much within your reach with the help of online education.

Ease of usage

All you need is a good internet connection and a computer or laptop. You can create your own timetable as per your lifestyle and manage to accomplish a lot more than a regular university or college life, allow you to do. You can sit up all night and sleep all day if that is the system that suits you. There is nothing restricting or restraining you with an online course. You are free to use your time as you wish to.

It takes comparatively less time

As compared to the traditional college experience; an online degree takes lesser time, to some extent. An online university does not need to take the traditional holiday breaks and does not need to go offline at any point of time. They often provide a flexible timeframe and let you decide your own course of action. Their semesters and terms can be completed back to back. This enables you to get your desired educational degree at a much faster pace.

At par with regular college degree

The major concern when you are opting for online education tends to be the concern as to whether this degree will be the equivalent of a regular college degree. Fact is that most programs through  online education in India are checked, tested and approved by State, national or international review boards. The online option actually allows you to choose from a huge variety of subjects and allows you more and more freedom to choose your favorite streams and interest areas. What you need to do is make sure that the program or online university that you are opting for is duly recognized and accredited.

With all these facilities at your disposal, you still need dedication to succeed at your educational quest. While the online degree gives you a lot of lee way and maneuvering room; it does require total dedication and sincerity on the part of the student. It is no less exacting than a typical college, when it comes to various assignments and papers that need to be submitted in order to complete and clear your terms.

You need to understand that just because you can study at your own pace, it does not mean that you can take it easy or take in any less seriously than your regular college. It is a tool that can make your life easy and your dreams easier to achieve, if used with proper reverence and respect.

Recession kills. Suddenly you are out of the job, bills start accumulating, relations could get strained, savings start to deplete and you are left frustrated. Members in a middle class household cannot afford to lose jobs. As we say, there is a good and bad to everything. When you are out of job during recession, it could be a good time to re-discover yourself.

5  Tips to Re-Discover Yourself during Recession

Here you go:

Pen Down your Thoughts

Writing is a great stress reliever. You do not need to have any specific writing skills, just the desire to pen down your thoughts.

Note down your feelings. Are you disappointed? Are you frustrated? Are you under pressure? How are you searching for new jobs? There will a gamut of thoughts and emotions coursing through you. Don’t ignore. Don’t let your mind go blank. Acknowledge the inner turmoil and let it out on the paper.

You need not share them with anyone. Keep them locked in a drawer.

Analyze your Professional Life

Getting laid off during recession can turn into a time to do reconnaissance of your professional life. You are probably in your late-twenties or nearing forties. Think about your career choices. Were they worth it? Did they pay off in the end? Would it have been better to choose another career?

Remember not to feel self pity. That’s not the point. It’s a way to recap where you started from and where you have reached. Did you achieve 5-year or 10-year career goals? If not, what can be done to achieve it now?

Also think whether you want to return to the same career or do something new. Would pursuing that long lost hobby be more engaging than going back to the same old career?

Utilize this time period to think of the choices you made. Think positively.

Time to Unwind. Take off on a Vacation

Jobs will come and go but the time you have now will not return again, ever. There is no use wallowing in self pity. Instead, use this time to unwind. Either with family or alone, it’s time to be adventurous and take that vacation you had been postponing because of work commitments.

This is one of the best ways to re-discover your persona all over again. Of course, you need money too. Just let yourself loose and go with the flow. Losing jobs blows away one’s confidence and motivation level, but you need to move on. Search for newer pastures, newer opportunities.

Check your Financial Status

So you have worked hard for the past decade, but, how are you placed financially? Financial well being is part of existence, don’t ignore it. Also, being jobless is no reason to squander away that safety nest egg.

Do a review of your financial status. Is there enough life insurance coverage? How are those mutual funds holding up?

If jobs are hard to come by and you are in need of cash, maybe you could liquidate some part of those investments.

Alternatively, if you are in poor financial condition, it’s time to prepare a 3-year achievable plan.

Prepare a Bucket List

A ‘bucket list’ is a list of things you want to accomplish but never got the time. This will be the right time to review the list or write a new bucket list.

Include everything you want to achieve in life. It could be as simple as having dinner at 7-star hotel to taking a world trip in the next 10 years. The possibilities are limitless. Use your imagination.


Let not recession de-motivate you. Instead, utilize the time to reinvent, re-discover yourself. Bring about changes in your life. Getting laid off could become one of the best things that ever happened to you.

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